Tsoka uye Kuziva

Rutsoka (footprinting) zvinoreva nzira yekuunganidza ruzivo nezve chinangwa. Ndiyo nhanho yekutanga yekurwisa umo anorwisa anoedza kudzidza zvakanyanya sezvazvinogona pamusoro pechinangwa chekutsvaga nzira yekupinda muchirongwa.

Mhando dzeRutsoka

Kune mhando mbiri dzekutsika tsoka:

  • Kutsika kwetsoka
  • Kushanda tsoka

Passive tsoka inoteedzera zvinoreva kuunganidza ruzivo usingabatanidzane nechinangwa chaicho. Rudzi urwu rwekutsika tsoka runoshandiswa kana kuunganidzwa kweruzivo kusingafanirwe kuonekwa nechinangwa.

Kushanda tsoka kutsika zvinoreva kutora ruzivo nekubatana nechinangwa chaicho. Nemhando iyi yekutsika pane mukana wekuti chinangwa chizoziva nezve kuunganidzwa kweruzivo.

Vanorwisa vanoshandisa tsoka kutsika ruzivo runotevera:

  • Ruzivo rweNetwork

    • Domains

    • Subdomains

    • IP kero

    • Whois uye DNS zvinyorwa

  • Ruzivo rweSystem

    • Webhu sevha inoshanda masystem

    • Nzvimbo dzeSeva

    • Vashandisi

    • Mapassword

  • Ruzivo rwesangano

    • Ruzivo rwevashandi

    • Sangano rekumashure

    • Nhamba dzefoni

    • Nzvimbo

Zvinangwa zveRutsoka

Zvinangwa zvekutsika tsoka ndezvekuti:




  • Dzidza kuchengetedzeka mamiriro Ongorora mamiriro ekuchengetedza echinangwa, tsvaga maburi, uye gadzira chirongwa chekurwisa.


  • Ziva nzvimbo yekutarisa Uchishandisa akasiyana matekinoroji uye matekinoroji, dzikisa pasi huwandu hwe IP kero.


  • Tsvaga kushomeka Shandisa iyo yakaunganidzwa ruzivo kuti uone kushomeka mukuchengetedza kwechinangwa.


  • Mepu mambure Graphics inomiririra tarisiro yeneti uye ushandise seyekufambisa panguva yekurwisa.

Sei uye kupi Kwokutora Ruzivo

Kune akawanda maturusi uye zviwanikwa zvepamhepo izvo zvatinogona kushandisa kuunganidza ruzivo nezve yedu tarisiro.

Tsvaga Injini uye Online Zvivakwa

Injini dzekutsvaga dzinogona kushandiswa kuburitsa ruzivo nezve yakanangwa sangano. Mhedzisiro yekutsvaga inogona kusanganisira ruzivo nezvevashandisi vesangano rakanangwa, intranet, mapeji ekupinda, uye rumwe ruzivo rwunogona kubatsira kune vanorwisa.

Imwe nzira yekuunganidza ruzivo uchishandisa injini dzekutsvaga ndeyokushandisa nzira dzekubira dzegoogle.

Kubiridzira kweGoogle inzira inoshandiswa nevanorwisa kuita tsvakiridzo yakaoma uye kubvisa ruzivo rwakakosha nezvezvinangwa zvavo. Izvo zvinosanganisira kushandisa seti yevanotsvaga vanogadzira uye kuvaka yakaoma mibvunzo. Iwo mashandisiro ayo anoshandiswa muGoogle kubiridzira anonzi dorks.

Whois, IP Geolocation, uye DNS Kubvunzana

Ndiani

Whois inoreva mubvunzo uye mhinduro protocol iyo inoshandiswa kudzosa ruzivo nezve yakapihwa Internet zviwanikwa.

Whois dhatabhesi ane ruzivo rwevaridzi vedunhu uye inochengetwa neRegional Internet Registries.

Kune maviri marudzi e data mhando aripo:

  • Ndiani akaoma
  • Akaonda ndiani

Akakora whois ane ruzivo rwese kubva kune vese marejista kune yakatarwa seti yedata. Mutete uyo ane ruzivo rwakaganhurwa nezve yakatarwa seti yedata.

Mhedzisiro yemubvunzo mhinduro kazhinji inosanganisira:

  • Domain ruzivo
  • Domain muridzi ruzivo
  • Domain server
  • Net renji
  • Domain expiring
  • Zvisikwa uye ekupedzisira ekuvandudza mazuva

Regional Internet Registries, iyo inochengetedza iyo whois dhatabhesi, inosanganisira:

  • ARIN (American Registry yeInternet Nhamba)
  • AFRINIC (African Network Ruzivo Center)
  • APNIC (Asia Pacific Network Ruzivo Center)
  • RIPE (Tsvagiridzo IP Europeens Network Coordination Center)
  • LACNIC (Latin America neCaribbean Network Ruzivo Center)

IP Geolocation

IP geolocation inobatsira kuwana ruzivo rwekugara nezve chinangwa chakadai senyika, guta, kodhi yepositi, ISP, zvichingodaro. Neruzivo urwu, maHackers anokwanisa kuita zvemagariro ekurwiswa pachinangwa.

DNS Kubvunzurudzwa

Kupa tsoka kweDNS kunoreva kuunganidza ruzivo nezveDNS zone data, iyo inosanganisira ruzivo nezve makuru makosi mune network.

DNS maturusi ekubvunzurudza anobatsira varwisi kuita DNS tsoka. Kushandisa zvishandiso izvi, varwisi vanokwanisa kuwana ruzivo nezve mhando dzeseva nenzvimbo dzadzo.

Email Kutsikisa

Email kutsika inoreva kuunganidza ruzivo kubva kuemail nekutarisa kuendesa kweemail uye kuongorora iwo mahedhiyo.

Ruzivo rwunounganidzwa kuburikidza netsamba yeemail inosanganisira:

  • IP kero yemubatsiri
  • Geolocation yemubatsiri
  • Dhirivhari ruzivo
  • Shanyira zvinongedzo
  • Browser uye OS ruzivo
  • Nguva yekuverenga

Email misoro ine ruzivo nezve iye anotumira, chidzidzo, uye mugashiri. Ruzivo rwese urwu rwakakosha kune vanobiridzira pavanoronga kurwisa zvavarivavarira.

Ruzivo rwuri mumusoro weemail runosanganisira:

  • Sender zita
  • IP / Email kero yemutumiri
  • Tsamba server
  • Tsamba server server yekusimbisa system
  • Tumira uye kuendesa chitambi
  • Yakasiyana nhamba yemessage

Izvo zvinoita zvakare kuteedzera maemail uchishandisa akasiyana maturu ekushandisa. Email yekushandisa maturusi ane kugona kwekutevera maemail uye kuongorora misoro yavo kutora ruzivo rwakakosha. Iye anotumira anoziviswa nezveemail iri kuunzwa uye kuvhurwa neanogamuchira.

Webhusaiti Kutsikisa

Webhusaiti kutsika ndiyo nzira iyo ruzivo pamusoro pechinangwa runounganidzwa nekutarisa webhusaiti yacho. Hackers vanogona mepu rese webhusaiti yechinangwa vasina kucherechedzwa.

Webhusaiti kutsika inopa ruzivo nezve:

  • Software
  • Inoshanda system
  • Subdirectories
  • Ruzivo rwekuonana
  • Chinyorwa cheplatform
  • Query ruzivo

Nekuongorora misoro yewebhusaiti, zvinokwanisika kuwana ruzivo nezve inotevera misoro:

  • Zvemukati-Type
  • Gamuchira-Ranges
  • Mamiriro Ekubatanidza
  • Yekupedzisira-Yakagadziriswa Ruzivo
  • X-powered-neRuzivo
  • Webhu saiti Ruzivo

Dzimwe nzira dzekuunganidza ruzivo ndedze HTML Source Kodhi uye kuki bvunzo. Nekuongorora iyo HTML sosi kodhi, zvinokwanisika kuburitsa ruzivo kubva kune zvakataurwa mukodhi, pamwe nekuwana nzwisiso yefaira system dhizaini nekutarisa zvinongedzo nematagi emifananidzo.

Cookies zvakare anogona kuburitsa ruzivo rwakakosha nezve software iri kumhanya pane server uye maitiro ayo. Zvakare, nekuongorora zvikamu, zvinokwanisika kuziva mapuratifomu ekunyora.

Kune zvirongwa zvakagadzirirwa kubatsira muwebhusaiti tsoka. Aya mapurogiramu anodanwa kuti madandemutande uye ivo nenzira yekutsvaga webhusaiti vachitsvaga ruzivo rwakananga. Ruzivo rwakatorwa nenzira iyi runogona kubatsira vanorwisa kuita kurwisa kweinjiniya.

Cloning Webhusaiti

Webhusaiti mirroring kana webhusaiti kuumbiridza inoreva maitiro ekuteedzera webhusaiti. Mirroring webhusaiti inobatsira mukushandura saiti isingaenderane, kutsvaga webhusaiti nekuda kwekukuvara, uye kutsvaga ruzivo rwakakosha

Mawebhusaiti anogona kuchengeta zvinyorwa zvemhando dzakasiyana izvo zvinogona kuve neruzivo rwakavanzika uye metadata iyo inogona kuongororwa uye kushandiswa mukuita kurwisa. Iyi metadata inogona kubviswa uchishandisa akasiyana metadata ekudzora maturusi pamwe nekubatsira varwisi kuita social engineering kurwisa.

Network Kupurinda

Nhaurwa yemambure inoreva maitiro ekuunganidza ruzivo nezve netiweki. Munguva yekuita uku, varwisi vanounganidza ruzivo rwenetwork renji uye vanoshandisa ruzivo rwekupora netiweki.

Network renji inopa vanorwisa ruzivo rwekuti maratidziro akagadzirwa sei uye ndeapi michina ari enetiweki.

Nmap

Nmap chishandiso chinoshandiswa kutsvaga network. Iyo inoshandisa mbichana IP mapaketi kuona iwo aripo anowanikwa pane netiweki, masevhisi anopiwa neavo varidzi, masystem anoshanda avari kuita, firewall mhando dziri kushandiswa, uye zvimwe zvakakosha hunhu.

Nmap maficha anosanganisira kugona kutarisisa makuru network pamwe nekumepura kunze kwenetiweki.

Traceroute

Mapurogiramu eTraceroute anoshandiswa kutsvaga mairaira ari munzira inoenda kunhingi inomiririra. Ruzivo urwu runobatsira nekuitisa murume-mukati-wepakati uye kumwe kurwisana kwakabatana.

Traceroute inoshandisa ICMP protocol uye iyo TTL munda mune IP musoro kuti uwane nzira. Iyo inorekodha IP kero uye DNS mazita eakawanikwa ma routers

Mhedzisiro ye traceroute inobatsira varwisi kuunganidza ruzivo nezve network topology, akavimbika ma routers, pamwe nenzvimbo dzekudzivirira moto. Ivo vanogona kushandisa izvi kugadzira network network uye kuronga kwavo kurwisa.

Kupfupikisa Kupikisa

Dzimwe dzenzvimbo dzekutsikirira dzinosanganisira:

  • Kurambidza kuwana kune vezvenhau
  • Kusimbisira kuchengetedzwa kwemitemo
  • Kudzidzisa vashandi nezvekutyisidzira kwekuchengetedza
  • Kunyora ruzivo rwakashata
  • Kuremadza maprotocol asingadiwe
  • Kugadzirirwa kwakakodzera kwebasa

Yekutsikirira Mishumo

Mishumo yekutsikirira inofanirwa kusanganisira ruzivo nezve zvayedzwa, nzira dzakashandiswa, uye mhedzisiro yekuedzwa. Inofanirawo kusanganisira rondedzero yekushomeka uye kuti inogona kugadziriswa sei. Iyi nhoroondo inofanirwa kuchengetwa yakavanzika kwazvo, kuti irege kuwira mumaoko asiri iwo.