Cryptography Zvinokosha

Kudhirowa kunoreva maitiro ekuvanza ruzivo nekushandura iwo mavara anoverengwa kuita mavara asingaverengeke uchishandisa imwe kiyi kana encryption algorithm.

Ruzivo rwakachengetedzwa uchishandisa cryptography inosanganisira maemail, mafaera, uye imwe data isinganzwisisike.

Chinangwa chekrisptography ndechekuona kuti iyo yakavharirwa ruzivo inochengeta zvakavanzika, kuvimbika, kuvimbiswa, uye kusaramba.

Cryptography Mhando

Encryption ine mhando mbiri:

  • Symmetric encryption inoshandisa kiyi imwe kunyorera uye kudonhedza ruzivo rwunotumirwa / kugamuchirwa.
  • Asymmetric kunyorera inoshandisa makiyi akasiyana kunyorera uye kudonhedza ruzivo rwunotumirwa / kugamuchirwa.

Cipher

Cipher inoreva algorithm iyo inoshandiswa kunyorera uye kududzira.

Cipher mhando ndedze:



Classical ciphers

  • Kubvisa cipher chipiri umo mavara akajeka anotsiviwa neciphertext.
  • Shanduko cipher Icho chipherimu icho chinyorwa chakajeka chakagadzirwazve kuti chigadzire ciphertext.

Yemazuva ano cipher


  • Makiyi-akavakirwa cipher:



    • Symmetric kiyi algorithm algorithm iyo inoshandisa kiyi imwe yekunyorera uye kuseta

    • Asymmetric kiyi algorithm algorithm iyo inoshandisa makiyi maviri ekunyorera uye kududzira


  • Input-based ciphers:



    • Bvisa cipher chinhu chinoshanda pane akagadzika-saizi mabhuroko e data uchishandisa kiyi yakaenzana

    • Stream cipher chinhu chinoshanda pane kamwechete nguva uchishandisa kiyi yakaenzana

Encryption Algorithms

OF

DES ndeye data encryption standard iyo inoshandisa symmetric encryption. Kiyi yakavanzika iyo inoshandiswa kunyorera uye kudonhedza ine makumi matanhatu, uko ma56 mabheti anogadzirwa zvisina kurongeka uye mabhii masere akasara anoshandiswa mukutarisa kwekukanganisa.

AES

AES yakaenzana-kiyi algorithm iyo inoita basa rakafanana kakawanda. Iyo inoshandisa yakatarwa saizi block ye128 bits uye makiyi ehukuru hutatu: 128, 192, uye 256 bits.

RC4, RC5, RC6

RC4 iri rinoshanduka kureba kiyi algorithm iyo inoshanda pane kamwechete nguva uye inoshandisa zvisaririra mvumo. Izvo ndezve boka re symmetric-kiyi yekuyerera cipher.

RC5 iri parameterized algorithm iyo ine musiyano webhokisi saizi, musiyano kiyi saizi, uye nhamba inoshanduka yemaround. Saizi yebato inogona kuve imwe yeatatu: 32, 64, uye 128 mabheti. Saizi yakakosha inogona kuva pakati pe0 ne24040 bits. Huwandu hwekutenderera hunogona kunge huri pakati pe0 ne255.

RC6 inotorwa kubva kuRC5 uye ine maviri ekuwedzera maficha: inoshandisa manhamba kuwanda uye 4-bit marejista (RC5 inoshandisa 2-bit marejista).

Zviviri

Twofish algorithm ndeye block cipher iyo inoshandisa 128-bit mabhuroko uye kiyi imwe yekunyorera uye kudonhedza. Kukura kwekiyi kunogona kubva pa0 kusvika pa256 bits.

DSA

DSA isymmetric algorithm iyo inoshandisa zvese zvakavanzika uye neruzhinji makiyi. Kiyi yakavanzika inotaurira kuti ndiani asayina meseji, uye kiyi yeruzhinji inosimbisa siginicha yedhijitari. Mune meseji chinjana pakati pezvinhu zviviri, chimwe nechimwe chinogadzira kiyi yeruzhinji uye yakavanzika.

RSA

RSA inoshandisa modular arithmetic uye yekutanga nhamba dzidziso dzekuita komputa uchishandisa maviri makuru makuru manhamba. Inotaridzirwa kuve yakavanzika encryption uye seizvi inoshandiswa mukushandisa kwakasiyana siyana. RSA inoshandisa zvese zvakavanzika uye neruzhinji makiyi mukuita kwekunyora uye kududzira.

Diffie-Hellman

Diffie-Hellman algorithm inoshandiswa kugadzira kiyi yakagovaniswa pakati pezvinhu zviviri pamusoro penzira isina kuchengetedzeka. Iyo inobvumidza mapato maviri kugadzira kiyi yekunyorera uyezve kunyorera traffic yavo nekiyi iyo.

Mharidzo Digest

Meseji kugaya mashandiro, kana nzira-nzira mashandiro, anoshandiswa kuverenga yakasarudzika-yakagadzika-saizi tambo inomiririra yebhuru yeruzivo. Izvo hazvigone kudzoserwa uye zvinoshandiswa kutarisa kutendeka kwefaira.

MD5 ishoko rinogaya algorithm iyo inotora inopinza kureba yekuisa uye inoburitsa 128-bit meseji dhizaini yekuisa. Iyi algorithm inoshandiswa mune siginicha yedigital application, kutarisa kuvimbika kwefaira, uye kuchengetedza password.

SHA

Yakachengeteka Hashing Algorithm kana SHA algorithm iyo inogadzira cryptographically yakachengeteka meseji dhizaini. Kune zvizvarwa zvitatu zveSHA algorithms: SHA-1, SHA-2, uye SHA-3. SHA-1 inogadzira 160-bit digests, nepo SHA-2 uye SHA-3 inogadzira 256, 384, uye 512-bit kugaya.

HMAC

Hash based Meseji Yekusimbisa Kodhi Kodhi kana HMAC mhando yemeseji yekusimbisa kodhi. Iyo inoshandisa musanganiswa weiyo cryptographic kiyi uye hash basa senge SHA-1 kana MD5. Iyo inoshandiswa kusimbisa uye kutendeseka kutarisa.

PKI

PKI inomirira Public Key Infrastructure uye inoreva hardware, software, vanhu, mitemo, uye nzira dzinodiwa kuti dzichengetedze zvitifiketi zve digital. Icho chivakwa chekuchengetedza chakagadzirwa kuti chiwedzere kuvanzika kweruzivo rwuri kuchinjaniswa.

Chitupa chakasaina chitupa chakapihwa neCertification Authorities (CA). Ine kiyi yeruzhinji uye kuzivikanwa kwemuridzi.

Chitupa-chakasainwa iwe chitupa chakapihwa uye chakasainwa wega Inowanzo shandiswa kuyedza zvinangwa uye neimwe nzira haisi yekuvimbika.

Email neDisk Encryption

Dhijitari siginicha

Dhizaini yedhijitari inogadzirwa uchishandisa asymmetric cryptography. Iyo yakasungirirwa kune yakatumirwa dhata uye inomiririra nzira yecryptographic yekusimbisa.

SSL

SSL inomiririra Yakachengeteka Socket Layer uye inoreva protokoti pane yekushandisa dhaidhi yakatarwa nekuona kuchengetedzeka kwekutumira meseji pane network uye neInternet.

TLS

TLS inomiririra Yekutakura Rukoko Kuchengeteka uye inoreva prototi inosimbisa yakachengeteka mutengi-server kubatanidza uye inovimbisa ruzivo kutendeseka uye zvakavanzika panguva yekufambisa.

PGP

PGP inomirira Kunaka Kwakanaka Kudzivirirwa uye inoreva chirevo chinoshandiswa pakunyora uye kududzira kwechokwadi uye cryptographic data. PGP inoshandiswa pakutsikirira data, masiginecha edhijitari, email encryption / decryption, uye rumwe ruzivo rwakashata.

Disk Encryption

Disk encryption inoreva kunyorera kwese data rakachengetwa pane diski. Chinangwa ndechekuchengetedza iyo data yakachengetwa mu diski uye kuona kuvanzika kwayo.

Cryptanalysis

Cryptanalysis inoreva maitiro ekunyorwa kwezvinyorwa uye zvinyorwa zvakanyorwa. Iyo inogona kuona kushomeka mu cryptosystems uye nekudaro ichibvisa mavara akajeka kubva kune yakavharidzirwa.

Maitiro anoshandiswa mu cryptanalysis ndeaya:

  • Linear cryptanalysis inoshandiswa pane block cipher
  • Kusiyanisa cryptanalysis inoshandiswa pane symmetric kiyi algorithms
  • Integral cryptanalysis inoshandiswa pane block cipher

Code-Kuputsa Maitiro

Matekiniki anoshandiswa kuyera simba reiyo encryption algorithm nekutyora iko kunosanganisira:

  • Brute yekumanikidza maitiro anoedza ese anogona kusangana yemavara kuputsa kunyorera
  • Frequency yekuongorora nzira inoongorora kuwanda kunoitika zvimwe zviratidzo uye zvichibva pane izvo zvinoputsa iko kunyorera
  • Unyengeri uye hunyengeri hunyanzvi hunoda kushandisa matekinoroji enjiniya kutora makiyi uye kutyora kunyorera
  • Imwe-yenguva pad padiki inoreva kusingachinjiki kunyorera umo iwo mavara akajeka akasanganiswa nekiyi iyo ine isingadzokorore seti yemavara, inogadzirwa zvisina kurongeka, uye iine hwakaenzana hwakaenzana neshoko riri kutumirwa.

Cryptography Inorwisa


  • Ciphertext-chete kurwisa kurwisa uko uyo anorwisa ane muunganidzwa wezvinyorwa zvinyorwa izvo zvinoda kuongororwa kuti uwane kiyi uye kunyorera zvinyorwa.


  • Kuzivikanwa-kurwisa kurwisa kurwisa uko iye anorwisa ane chikamu chekunyorwa kunoenderana nekwavanowana kiyi.


  • Vakasarudzika kurwisa kurwisa uko iye anorwisa anowana kiyi nekuongorora iwo mavara akajeka uye zvinoenderana zvinyorwa zvakagadzirwa neanorwisa.


  • Sarudza ciphertext kurwisa kurwisa uko uyo anorwisa anowana iwo akajeka mavara eeti seti yakasarudzwa ciphertexts uye kuyedza kuwana iyo kiyi.


  • Brute simba kurwisa kurwisa uko kwese kusanganisa kiyi kusanganiswa kunoedzwa kuchipesana neciphertext kusvikira kiyi yekurudyi yawanikwa. Uku kurwisa kunoda nguva yakawanda uye simba rekugadzirisa.


  • Kurwiswa kweduramazwi kurwisa uko iye anorwisa anogadzira duramazwi rekunyora uye zvinyorwa zvaro obva ashandisa iro duramazwi kutyora kunyorera.